And if you look at the output, the cells are filled with the number of data rows for each month-climate combination. The numbers we’re seeing are the number of days recorded in each month. When you cast your data and there are multiple values per cell, you also need to tell dcast how to aggregate the data. For example, maybe you want to take the mean , or the median , or the sum . Let’s try the last example, but this time we’ll take the mean of the climate values. We’ll also pass the option = TRUE through the ... argument to remove NA values. (The ... let’s you pass on additional arguments to your function, here mean .)
Plagiarism (use of others words, ideas, images, etc. without citation) is not to be tolerated and can be easily avoided by adequately referencing any and all information you use from other sources. In the strictest sense, plagiarism is representation of the work of others as being your work. Paraphrasing other's words too closely may be construed as plagiarism in some circumstances. In journal style papers there is virtually no circumstance in which the findings of someone else cannot be expressed in your own words with a proper citation of the source. Refer to: The Bates College Statement On Plagiarism and a Guide to Source Acknowledgment .) If you are unclear about what constitutes plagiarism, please confer with your instructor.
In the late 20th century and early 21st, the scientific communities found that the communicative value of journal articles was still much less than it could be if best practices were developed, promoted, and enforced. Thus reporting guidelines (guidelines for how best to report information) arose. The general theme has been to create templates and checklists with the message to the user being, "your article is not complete until you have done all of these things." In the 1970s, the ICMJE (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors) released the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (Uniform Requirements or URM). Other such standards , mostly developed in the 1990s through 2010s, are listed below. The advent of a need for best practices in data sharing has expanded the scope of these efforts beyond merely the pages of the journal article itself.