An influential psychologist in the areas of learning, education, and intelligence, . Thorndike proposed that humans possess several types of intelligence, one form being called social intelligence, or the ability to understand and manage men and women, boys and girls, and to act wisely in human relations (Thorndike, 1920). Even David Wechsler, the originator of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) intelligence tests, referred to both non-intellective and intellective elements of intelligence. The non-intellective elements, which included affective, personal, and social factors, he later hypothesized were essential for predicting one's ability to succeed in life (Wechsler, 1940). Later in the century, Howard Gardner again raised the notion of multiple intelligences. A Harvard-educated developmental psychologist, Gardner proposed a theory of multiple intelligences which dictated that individuals possess aptitudes in several areas, including verbal, mathematical, musical, spatial, movement oriented, environmental, intrapersonal (the examination and knowledge of one's own feelings) and interpersonal (the ability to read the moods, intentions, and desires of others) spheres (Myers, 1998). These intelligences were thought by Gardner to be as important as the type of intelligence typically measured by . tests (Gardner, 1983).